Pollination is a fundamental part of a tree's life cycle, and its success relies on the combination of several biological and physical elements. These include the compatibility of cultivars, synchronous flowering, insects, and suitable climatic conditions. If any of these components are missing or limited, crop yield and quality can be affected. Pollinators are essential for all fruit tree crops, whether they are self-fertile or self-sterile cultivars.
Bees are by far the most important group of pollinators, but some types of flies, such as hoverflies, some beetles, and some types of thrips may also contribute to a lesser extent. Honey bees are the most used bees for pollination because they are easy to manage and can be moved in and out of orchards to make them bloom. Texas is home to numerous flowering crops, such as cotton, sunflowers and sorghum, as well as orchards of peaches, apples and other fruit trees. To attract pollinators to these orchards, it is important to plant at least three different species that bloom at the same time in groups of at least 3 square feet.
Studies have demonstrated that when native bees pollinate orchards, they are more productive in terms of working hours and crop yields. A second method to increase pollen is to cut bouquets of blossoming branches from other trees in the orchard and place them in large containers with water inside rows of trees. Having two or more varieties in an orchard can pose problems due to the limitations of fumigation to harvest and cultural practices, and can confuse collectors, resulting in containers with mixed varieties. Native bees start pollinating earlier in the morning and continue later in the day and in humid, cloudy, or cool conditions from February to November in most climates than honey bees.
In addition to the essential role of bees in pollination, beekeeping can also provide economic benefits to farmers. Beekeeping has become an integral part of the operations of many Texas farmers due to the vital role of bees in pollinating crops and the potential economic advantages that beekeeping can offer. Bees are a critical component of food production in Texas and play an essential role in supporting the state's agriculture industry and food security.